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Treaties of Paris, 1814 .

From 1799 to 1815 France, under Napoleon Bonaparte, waged a series of wars, called the Napoleonic Wars , against various European nations. In 1814 he was defeated and forced to abdicate. The Treaty of Paris, signed on May 30, 1814, by France and its allied adversaries-Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain-was lenient. France retained the territory it held in Europe as of 1792 and did not pay an indemnity. Great Britain returned all French colonies except Tobago, Saint Lucia, and Mauritius. The Congress of Vienna was called for the resettlement of territories taken by Napoleon in Europe.